## 1. Unification of Classical, Quantum, and Relativistic Mechanics (project I)

The *internally electrodynamic* (IED) particle model (earlier termed a basic particle formation scheme) is developed by Dr Zheng-Johansson based on overall experimental observations as input information (with the continued moral and funding support of scientist P-I Johansson). A recent critical review of the key experiments suggests that the IED process underlies the basic particle equations and properties not just sufficiently but also necessarily**.**** **

The IED particle model briefly states:

A single-charged material particle, like the electron, proton, etc., is constituted of (i) an oscillatory point charge q of a characteristic frequency W and zero rest-mass, and (ii) the resulting electromagnetic waves E^{j},B^{j}‘s or j^{j}‘s extending between reflecting boundaries (Fig.1a). The waves are said to be subject to a Doppler effect if the oscillatory charge as a whole, the source, is in motion; q is an electric charge said in the usual sense and thus obeys the basic laws of electrodynamics; the total energy of oscillatory charge or equivalently of the electromagnetic waves is associated with a (dynamical) inertial mass obeying the usual laws of mechanics.

When addressing the origin of mass and the like, the vacuum is said as a polarisable dielectric, so the charge moving in it will be resisted by a medium-charge interaction force said to identify with the usual inertial force.

Overall experimental observations suggest that [1a,g]the vacuum is filled of electrically neutral but polarisable building entities, called vacuuons (Fig. 2), each composed of a spinning charge +

eat the core and-eon the spherical envelope bound strongly each other by a Coulomb force. Such a vacuum will be polarised about an external charge, building an electrostatic potential in which the charge in turn maintains its oscillation.

A set of well-known basic particle equations and properties become predictable based on first-principles solutions for the IED particles; several key solutions achieved include the de Broglie phase wave, de Broglie relations, Schrodinger equation, mass, mass-energy relation, Newton’s law of gravity, single particle self interference, and electromagnetic radiation and absorption; these equations or properties have long been broadly experimentally validated or demonstrated. The IED solution also predicts the Doebner-Goldin equation which emerges to represent a form of long-sought quantum wave equation including gravity.

See further related Publications.