1. Unification of Classical, Quantum, and Relativistic Mechanics (project I)

The internally electrodynamic (IED) particle model (earlier termed a basic particle formation scheme) is developed by Dr Zheng-Johansson based on overall experimental observations as input information (with the continued moral and funding support of scientist P-I Johansson). A recent critical review of the key experiments suggests that the IED process underlies the basic particle equations and properties not just sufficiently but also necessarily.

The IED particle model briefly states: A single-charged material particle, like the electron, proton, etc., is constituted of (i) an oscillatory point charge q of a characteristic frequency W and zero rest-mass, and (ii) the resulting electromagnetic waves Ej,Bj‘s or jj‘s extending between reflecting boundaries (Fig.1a). The waves are said to be subject to a Doppler effect if the oscillatory charge as a whole, the source, is in motion; q is an electric charge said in the usual sense and thus obeys the basic laws of electrodynamics; the total energy of oscillatory charge or equivalently of the electromagnetic waves is associated with a (dynamical) inertial mass obeying the usual laws of mechanics.

When addressing the origin of mass and the like, the vacuum is said as a polarisable dielectric, so the charge moving in it will be resisted by a medium-charge interaction force said to identify with the usual inertial force.

Overall experimental observations suggest that [1a,g]the vacuum is filled of electrically neutral but polarisable building entities, called vacuuons (Fig. 2), each composed of a spinning charge +e at the core and -e on the spherical envelope bound strongly each other by a Coulomb force. Such a vacuum will be polarised about an external charge, building an electrostatic potential in which the charge in turn maintains its oscillation.

A set of well-known basic particle equations and properties become predictable based on first-principles solutions for the IED particles; several key solutions achieved include the de Broglie phase wave, de Broglie relations, Schrodinger equation, mass, mass-energy relation, Newton’s law of gravity, single particle self interference, and electromagnetic radiation and absorption; these equations or properties have long been broadly experimentally validated or demonstrated. The IED solution also predicts the Doebner-Goldin equation which emerges to represent a form of long-sought quantum wave equation including gravity.

See further related Publications.


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